input{font-size:1rem;line-height:1.5rem}[amp-fx^=fly-in]{visibility:hidden}@media only screen and (max-width:979px){amp-addthis[data-widget-type=floating]{position:fixed!important;width:100%!important;height:50px;bottom:0}}@media only screen and (min-width:979px){amp-addthis[data-widget-type=floating]{position:fixed!important;width:70px!important;height:320px!important;top:200px}} /*# sourceURL=/css/ampdoc.css*/.i-amphtml-element{display:inline-block}.i-amphtml-blurry-placeholder{transition:opacity 0.3s cubic-bezier(0.0,0.0,0.2,1)!important}[layout=nodisplay]:not(.i-amphtml-element){display:none!important}.i-amphtml-layout-fixed,[layout=fixed][width][height]:not(.i-amphtml-layout-fixed){display:inline-block;position:relative}.i-amphtml-layout-responsive,[layout=responsive][width][height]:not(.i-amphtml-layout-responsive),[width][height][sizes]:not(.i-amphtml-layout-responsive){display:block;position:relative}.i-amphtml-layout-intrinsic{display:inline-block;position:relative;max-width:100%}.i-amphtml-intrinsic-sizer{max-width:100%;display:block!important}.i-amphtml-layout-container,.i-amphtml-layout-fixed-height,[layout=container],[layout=fixed-height][height]{display:block;position:relative}.i-amphtml-layout-fill,[layout=fill]:not(.i-amphtml-layout-fill){display:block;overflow:hidden!important;position:absolute;top:0;left:0;bottom:0;right:0}.i-amphtml-layout-flex-item,[layout=flex-item]:not(.i-amphtml-layout-flex-item){display:block;position:relative;-ms-flex:1 1 auto;flex:1 1 auto}.i-amphtml-layout-fluid{position:relative}.i-amphtml-layout-size-defined{overflow:hidden!important}.i-amphtml-layout-awaiting-size{position:absolute!important;top:auto!important;bottom:auto!important}i-amphtml-sizer{display:block!important}.i-amphtml-blurry-placeholder,.i-amphtml-fill-content{display:block;height:0;max-height:100%;max-width:100%;min-height:100%;min-width:100%;width:0;margin:auto}.i-amphtml-layout-size-defined .i-amphtml-fill-content{position:absolute;top:0;left:0;bottom:0;right:0}.i-amphtml-layout-intrinsic .i-amphtml-sizer{max-width:100%}.i-amphtml-replaced-content,.i-amphtml-screen-reader{padding:0!important;border:none!important}.i-amphtml-screen-reader{position:fixed!important;top:0px!important;left:0px!important;width:4px!important;height:4px!important;opacity:0!important;overflow:hidden!important;margin:0!important;display:block!important;visibility:visible!important}.i-amphtml-screen-reader~.i-amphtml-screen-reader{left:8px!important}.i-amphtml-screen-reader~.i-amphtml-screen-reader~.i-amphtml-screen-reader{left:12px!important}.i-amphtml-screen-reader~.i-amphtml-screen-reader~.i-amphtml-screen-reader~.i-amphtml-screen-reader{left:16px!important}.i-amphtml-unresolved{position:relative;overflow:hidden!important}.i-amphtml-select-disabled{-webkit-user-select:none!important;-moz-user-select:none!important;-ms-user-select:none!important;user-select:none!important}.i-amphtml-notbuilt,[layout]:not(.i-amphtml-element){position:relative;overflow:hidden!important;color:transparent!important}.i-amphtml-notbuilt:not(.i-amphtml-layout-container)>*,[layout]:not([layout=container]):not(.i-amphtml-element)>*{display:none}.i-amphtml-ghost{visibility:hidden!important}.i-amphtml-element>[placeholder],[layout]:not(.i-amphtml-element)>[placeholder]{display:block}.i-amphtml-element>[placeholder].amp-hidden,.i-amphtml-element>[placeholder].hidden{visibility:hidden}.i-amphtml-element:not(.amp-notsupported)>[fallback],.i-amphtml-layout-container>[placeholder].amp-hidden,.i-amphtml-layout-container>[placeholder].hidden{display:none}.i-amphtml-layout-size-defined>[fallback],.i-amphtml-layout-size-defined>[placeholder]{position:absolute!important;top:0!important;left:0!important;right:0!important;bottom:0!important;z-index:1}.i-amphtml-notbuilt>[placeholder]{display:block!important}.i-amphtml-hidden-by-media-query{display:none!important}.i-amphtml-element-error{background:red!important;color:#fff!important;position:relative!important}.i-amphtml-element-error:before{content:attr(error-message)}i-amp-scroll-container,i-amphtml-scroll-container{position:absolute;top:0;left:0;right:0;bottom:0;display:block}i-amp-scroll-container.amp-active,i-amphtml-scroll-container.amp-active{overflow:auto;-webkit-overflow-scrolling:touch}.i-amphtml-loading-container{display:block!important;pointer-events:none;z-index:1}.i-amphtml-notbuilt>.i-amphtml-loading-container{display:block!important}.i-amphtml-loading-container.amp-hidden{visibility:hidden}.i-amphtml-loader-line{position:absolute;top:0;left:0;right:0;height:1px;overflow:hidden!important;background-color:hsla(0,0%,59.2%,0.2);display:block}.i-amphtml-loader-moving-line{display:block;position:absolute;width:100%;height:100%!important;background-color:hsla(0,0%,59.2%,0.65);z-index:2}@keyframes i-amphtml-loader-line-moving{0%{transform:translateX(-100%)}to{transform:translateX(100%)}}.i-amphtml-loader-line.amp-active .i-amphtml-loader-moving-line{animation:i-amphtml-loader-line-moving 4s ease infinite}.i-amphtml-loader{position:absolute;display:block;height:10px;top:50%;left:50%;transform:translateX(-50%) translateY(-50%);transform-origin:50% 50%;white-space:nowrap}.i-amphtml-loader.amp-active .i-amphtml-loader-dot{animation:i-amphtml-loader-dots 2s infinite}.i-amphtml-loader-dot{position:relative;display:inline-block;height:10px;width:10px;margin:2px;border-radius:100%;background-color:rgba(0,0,0,0.3);box-shadow:2px 2px 2px 1px rgba(0,0,0,0.2);will-change:transform}.i-amphtml-loader .i-amphtml-loader-dot:first-child{animation-delay:0s}.i-amphtml-loader .i-amphtml-loader-dot:nth-child(2){animation-delay:.1s}.i-amphtml-loader .i-amphtml-loader-dot:nth-child(3){animation-delay:.2s}@keyframes i-amphtml-loader-dots{0%,to{transform:scale(.7);background-color:rgba(0,0,0,0.3)}50%{transform:scale(.8);background-color:rgba(0,0,0,0.5)}}.i-amphtml-element>[overflow]{cursor:pointer;position:relative;z-index:2;visibility:hidden}.i-amphtml-element>[overflow].amp-visible{visibility:visible}template{display:none!important}.amp-border-box,.amp-border-box *,.amp-border-box :after,.amp-border-box :before{box-sizing:border-box}amp-pixel{display:none!important}amp-analytics,amp-story-auto-ads{position:fixed!important;top:0!important;width:1px!important;height:1px!important;overflow:hidden!important;visibility:hidden}html.i-amphtml-fie>amp-analytics{position:initial!important}[visible-when-invalid]:not(.visible),form [submit-error],form [submit-success],form [submitting]{display:none}amp-accordion{display:block!important}amp-accordion>section{float:none!important}amp-accordion>section>*{float:none!important;display:block!important;overflow:hidden!important;position:relative!important}amp-accordion,amp-accordion>section{margin:0}amp-accordion>section>:last-child{display:none!important}amp-accordion>section[expanded]>:last-child{display:block!important}.i-amphtml-default-placeholder{background-color:#f8f8f8}.i-amphtml-new-loader{display:inline-block;position:absolute;top:50%;left:50%}.i-amphtml-new-loader-size-default{margin-left:-36px;margin-top:-36px;width:72px;height:72px}.i-amphtml-new-loader-size-small{margin-left:-24px;margin-top:-24px;width:48px;height:48px}.i-amphtml-new-loader-logo{transform-origin:60px 60px;opacity:0;animation:i-amphtml-new-loader-scale-and-fade-in 0.8s ease-in 0.6s forwards,i-amphtml-new-loader-fade-out 0.8s ease-out 1.8s forwards}.i-amphtml-new-loader-spinner{transform-origin:60px 60px;opacity:0;fill:transparent;stroke:#aaa;stroke-width:1.5px;animation:i-amphtml-new-loader-fade-in 0.8s ease-in 1.8s forwards}.i-amphtml-new-loader-size-default .i-amphtml-new-loader-spinner{stroke-dasharray:36 118;stroke-dashoffset:52}.i-amphtml-new-loader-size-small .i-amphtml-new-loader-spinner{stroke-dasharray:18 59;stroke-dashoffset:26;animation-delay:0.8s}.i-amphtml-new-loader-spinner-segment{transform-origin:60px 60px;animation:forwards 0.6s cubic-bezier(0.5,0,0.8,1) 2.8s none,forwards 1.2s linear 3.4s infinite none}.i-amphtml-new-loader-size-default .i-amphtml-new-loader-spinner-segment{r:22}.i-amphtml-new-loader-size-small .i-amphtml-new-loader-spinner-segment{r:11}.i-amphtml-new-loader-spinner-segment:first-child{transform:rotate(90deg);animation-name:i-amphtml-new-loader-first-spin-1,i-amphtml-new-loader-spin-1}.i-amphtml-new-loader-spinner-segment:nth-child(2){transform:rotate(180deg);animation-name:i-amphtml-new-loader-first-spin-2,i-amphtml-new-loader-spin-2}.i-amphtml-new-loader-spinner-segment:nth-child(3){transform:rotate(270deg);animation-name:i-amphtml-new-loader-first-spin-3,i-amphtml-new-loader-spin-3}.i-amphtml-new-loader-spinner-segment:nth-child(4){animation-name:i-amphtml-new-loader-first-spin-4,none}.i-amphtml-new-loader *{animation-play-state:paused}.i-amphtml-new-loader.amp-active *{animation-play-state:running}@keyframes i-amphtml-new-loader-spin-1{0%{transform:rotate(0deg)}50%{transform:rotate(90deg)}to{transform:rotate(360deg)}}@keyframes i-amphtml-new-loader-spin-2{0%{transform:rotate(0deg)}to{transform:rotate(360deg)}}@keyframes i-amphtml-new-loader-spin-3{0%{transform:rotate(0deg)}50%{transform:rotate(270deg)}to{transform:rotate(360deg)}}@keyframes i-amphtml-new-loader-first-spin-1{0%{transform:rotate(90deg)}to{transform:rotate(360deg)}}@keyframes i-amphtml-new-loader-first-spin-2{0%{transform:rotate(180deg)}to{transform:rotate(360deg)}}@keyframes i-amphtml-new-loader-first-spin-3{0%{transform:rotate(270deg)}to{transform:rotate(360deg)}}@keyframes i-amphtml-new-loader-first-spin-4{0%{transform:rotate(0deg)}99%{opacity:1}to{transform:rotate(360deg);opacity:0}}@keyframes i-amphtml-new-loader-fade-in{0%{opacity:0}to{opacity:1}}@keyframes i-amphtml-new-loader-fade-out{0%{opacity:1}to{opacity:0}}@keyframes i-amphtml-new-loader-scale-and-fade-in{0%{opacity:0;transform:scale(0)}50%{transform:scale(1)}to{opacity:1}} /*# sourceURL=/css/ampshared.css*/Subscribe | Independent

Exclusive articles, events, ebooks – and no advertising

1 month free trial

Your benefits explained

  • Support free-thinking journalism
    • 15p per day
    • Ad-free website and apps
    Read more

    Unlike many news organisations, The Independent is free from political bias and the influence of shareholders or commercial interests. Built on the principles of respecting its readers and trusting its journalists, the title, founded in 1986, has never been more relevant than it is today, amid the growing threats of political and corporate spin, fake news and populism. We continue to hold the powerful to account, defend the truth, and rebuild trust in journalism.

    We need your support to continue this work.

  • Join us
    • Free tickets to debates and events
    • Priority commenting
    • Tell us what you want to read
    Read more

    The Independent has always respected and listened to its readers. Now we can invite you to be more involved than ever.

    We will be hosting debates and inviting you to meet our leading journalists — with free tickets for Independent Minds members. Members will also be able to post comments in exclusive discussion threads, which our journalists will also join. You can also make your voice heard by telling us what you want to read about in the new Ask The Independent feature.

  • Get the very best of The Independent
    • Exclusive features and analysis
    • Exclusive weekly newsletters
    • Exclusive free monthly ebooks
    Read more

    Enjoy exclusive features every day from award-winning Independent journalists and guest contributors, across subjects as diverse as politics, sport, lifestyle and foreign affairs, with a new advertising-free design.

    You can also choose to receive exclusive emails presenting the highlights of the week.

    And each month, we will offer you a free ebook from our expanded library.

Articles by your favourite journalists

Our leading journalists are writing their most timely, in-depth content exclusively for subscribers.
When you join you get access to it all.

  • Bel Trew on the Middle East

    Trew is The Independent's Middle East Correspondent based in Jerusalem. Bel has covered the region since the Arab Spring erupted in 2011, and has covered the uprisings and subsequent conflicts in Egypt, Libya and Yemen.

  • Robert Fisk on the Middle East

    Fisk is The Independent's multi-award winning Middle East Correspondent, based in Beirut. He has lived in the Arab world for more than 40 years covering invasions, wars, revolutions and occupations.

  • John Rentoul on politics

    John Rentoul is The Independent's Chief Political Commentator. He writes widely on politics, is a prominent tweeter and is the author of an acclaimed biography of Tony Blair, among other books.

  • Kim Sengupta on security

    Sengupta is The Independent's award-winning Defence and Diplomatic Editor. For the past 26 years Kim has reported from the frontline of conflicts across the globe.

  • Shappi Khorsandi on modern life

    Shappi Khorsandi is a stand-up comedian, writer and Independent columnist. She is also president of the British Humanist Association.

  • Simon Calder on travel

    Simon Calder is The Independent's Travel Correspondent and is the foremost authority on all aspects of travel journalism in the UK.

  • Patrick Cockburn on the Middle East

    Middle East Correspondent Patrick Cockburn is an award-winning columnist, specialising in analysis of Iraq, Syria and wars in the Middle East. In 2014, he even forecast the rise of Isis.

  • Sean O'Grady on economics

    Associate Editor Sean O'Grady writes editorials, columns about politics and economics, and reviews. He has worked for our titles since 1998, after enjoying a career in Parliament and at the BBC.

Independent Minds events

Become part of Independent Minds and listen to and challenge our top journalists views and experiences. From debates with top politicians and activists to audiences with correspondents - get involved with the news agenda.

Enjoy the new Independent Minds app

Read about the issues that matter at your convenience. The new Independent Minds app gives you full access to all of our award-winning journalism.

  • Updated throughout the day for offline reading
  • Tailor your home screen with your preferred sections
  • Bookmark the best articles to read at your leisure
  • All in an uninterrupted, ad-free environment
  • Available on Apple iOS and Android

Exclusive articles, events, ebooks – and no advertising

1 month free trial

Add The Independent Daily Edition

From the bespoke front cover through to carefully selected news, reviews and interviews, treat yourself to a daily edition of The Independent from a designated team of editors who take the time to curate the content for the best read.

  • Automatic delivery by 5am daily
  • Special supplements
  • 30 day archive
  • Free access to Independent Minds events
  • Available on all devices